How to Enslave the Human Race

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Your primary point of address is to gain control of the energy of the civilization.

The means by which human being exchange with one another, the money system itself, comprises the energy of a culture. You must therefore set up banking cartels that take from government the role of creating and issuing money. Once you are able to create and issue the money supply, issue it as interest-bearing debt.

Having achieved that, you will find yourself the master of all economic activity, senior to government and able to control events on the planet simply by through the puppet strings of debt, flowing money to those things that suit your purposes and denying money to those human activities inimical to your goal of enslavement.

To make sure nobody twigs what you are doing, hide your basically simple scam behind a smoke screen of complexity and call this baffling complexity "economics." Now you're all set.

Use your control of money to nurture and promote operations that further consolidate your power. Important among these are:

Facilitate the political careers of your proxies in government and hinder the careers of anyone who genuinely seeks to further the cause of human freedom. You do NOT want well-intentioned, capable politicians who seek to serve the interests of their people in any position where they can influence anything. This may give politics a bad name but so what? If politics has a bad name it will be shunned by men of good will and you do not want men of good will to embrace it or meddle in it in any case.

Facilitate the promotion, instigation and carrying out of warfare. Keep human beings fighting one another, keep them afraid of one another, keep them desperate and confused. While thus kept busy slaughtering one another, they will be unable to see and target their true enemy: YOU. This has the added advantage that you can extend limitless loans to desperate governments embroiled in war and thus make a packet on the interest.

Keep human beings and their various groups and endeavours in debt and make sure they never get out of debt. Make sure that debt levels keep on increasing. The more universal the debt, the greater your influence.

Extend your influence through the media. Use the media to ensure that human beings never get information that makes sufficient sense that they can resolve problems. Make human beings believe thereby that problems can not be solved. At the same time, disseminate "information" that will lead them to conclusions that suit your purpose, however daft and however inimical to their own long term survival. Their long term survival is unimportant. Keep them misinformed, afraid and bewildered.

Use your money power, your control of government and your control of the lines of information to nurture the growth of unworkable psychotherapies that actually reduce the ability of human beings to function and which render human beings apathetic and malleable. At every opportunity make sure human beings do not amount to anything or become more able. Dress all this up in the guise of "help" and "healing." Ideal for your purpose is psychiatry, so ensure it is nicely dressed up as "science." Use your political proxies to pass laws that extend its power.

Use this influence to further the cause of drugging as the best and most efficient way to render a population dull and incapable. The importance of drugging everybody you can on any pretext you can dream up can not be overstated.

Make sure that at the same time any workable methods that do arise which make human beings better, more alert, more well and so forth are crushed. Such movements, if allowed to take hold, will jeopardize your whole operation. Be afraid of them.

Use your political proxies and psychiatry to infiltrate and subvert the education system. Make sure thereby that human beings are rendered incapable of reason and the ability to think for themselves. Limited literacy is your goal. You do not want free minds and free minds should be neutralized at every opportunity. Such people make very poor slaves.

Create a climate of confusion. A bewildered or upset human being is grist to your mill.

Given the constraints of distorted economics, misinformation, poor education, drugging, the predominance of debilitating "psychotherapies," and control of the machinery of government, you will have your slave planet, to do with as you will.

The only problem you will encounter then is the fact that no civilization can run when the minds of its individuals are dulled and crippled.

The whole exercise therefore will enable you only to inherit ruins, smoking rubble and corpses.

This may, however, be perfectly acceptable to you if your goal is to destroy the human race.

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Source by Kieron Mcfadden

Swift's Criticism of Society in "A Modest Proposal"

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Anglo-Irish writer Jonathan Swift's "A Modest Proposal" (anonymously published in 1729) is a powerful political satire about the economic and social conditions of the poor in Ireland under British rule. The essay is rich with references to political events in England and Ireland in the 18th century. Swift takes 'irony' as the best weapon to attack on all kinds of vice and injustice prevailing in the society. Now we will see how Swift criticizes the society in his essay.

Before, entering into our discussion we are to know something the miserable condition of that Ireland. Actually the misfortune of Ireland begins when, in 1541, the Irish recognizes England's Henry viii, a Protestant, as king of Ireland. The protestant landlords acquire almost ten percent of estates. Meanwhile, a law is enacted limiting the rights of Irish to hold government office, purchase, real estate and get education. Consequently, many of Irish flee away and those who remain live in poverty disease and starvation.

The essayist, at the very beginning of the essay, states the deplorable economic condition and social picture of Ireland under the British rule. As the author says:

"IT is a melancholly Object to those, who walk through this great Town, or travel in the Country; when they see the Streets, the Roads, and Cabbin-doors crowded with Beggars of the Female Sex, followed by three, four, or six Children, all in Rags, and importuning every Passenger for an Alms. "

Moreover, the author fears that, when the infants of these beggars grow up, "either turn Thieves for want of Work; or leave their dear Native Country, to fight for the Pretender in Spain, or sell themselves to the Barbadoes."

This miserable situation is, in fact, resulted by the indifference of English administration and the oppression of landlords. Instead of solving the problem the British government shows a great carelessness to the repeated appeals to feed those hungry mouths.

Now, swift, as an English patriot finds out a "fair, cheap, and easy Method of making these Children sound and useful Members of the Commonwealth". He wants to come with a proposal in such a manner, as he says:

"… As, instead of being a Charge upon their Parents, or the Parish, or wanting Food and Raiment for the rest of their Lives; they shall, on the contrary, contribute to the Feeding, and partly to the Cloathing, of many Thousands. "

Swift criticizes the authority by prospecting that this scheme "will prevent those voluntary Abortions, and that horrid Practice of Women murdering their Bastard Children" which is "too frequent among us". His criticism towards the English administration becomes more clear when he doubts that, the poor innocent babies are killed "more to avoid the Expence than the Shame". The author mocks the intellectuals and the policy makers of the time by proposing his grotesque proposal in the most formal manner with a great gravity. As the essayist comments:

"I SHALL now therefore humbly propose my own Thoughts; which I hope will not be liable to the least Objection."

Now we will have a look on his proposal. In his proposal Swift suggests that a significant portion of Irish children should be slaughtered and their carcasses should be sold to the wealthy as well as landlords so that the poor parents can be economically benefited and get rid of the burden of the maintenance. The essayist criticizes the brutal mentality of the authority, as they never considered Irish as human being. To indicate their meanness, the essayist uses such words which are best suitable for the animal not for the human being. He uses the word, for example, 'carcasses', remains of dead animals dressed by butchers, to refer the remains of children prepared as meat.

Again, the essayist equates the oppressors with the butchers as they mercilessly snatch away the bread from the hand of the Irish children and rush them to the way of death. As the author says:
"… And Butchers we may be assured will not be wanting"

The essayist also criticizes the landlords for their aggressive attitude to the poor Irish. As Swift remarks:
"I GRANT this Food will be somewhat dear and therefore very proper for Landlords; who, as they have already devoured most of the Parents, seem to have the best Title to the Children."

Swift stabs the authorities for their mistreatment to the Irish poor prospecting that, they will be very glad to eat human flesh as they have lost their sense.

"I could name a Country, which would be glad to eat up our whole Nation without it."

The author also criticizes the fashionable ladies and the so called gentle folk of the society. As he says:
"THOSE who are more thrifty (as I must confess the Times require) may flay the Carcase; the Skin of which, artificially dressed, will make admirable Gloves for Ladies, and Summer Boots for fine Gentlemen."

Swift, in order to criticize the society, ironically shows six benefit of the proposal.
Firstly: it will reduce the total number of Catholics, the enemy of the Protestants.
Secondly: the poor parents will get some money with which they can pay landlords rent.
Thirdly: the money will circulate among the Irish and increases national income.
Fourthly: the mothers will get rid of the charge of maintaining the children after the first year.
Fifthly: the empty taverns will be full with a huge number of customers.
Finally: it will be a great encouragement to marriage and increase the care and the tenderness of mother to their children.

Actually Swift's proposal shocks every reader even the cruel barbarian can not think of such a cannibalistic idea of ‚Äč‚Äčeating man's flesh. Everyone with common sense can easily understand that out of extreme agony the essayist gives such suggestion. He wants to say beneath this proposal that government should take this proposal if they can not solve the problem immediately.

At the end of the essay, the bitter criticism is clear when the essayist terminates the proposal ensuring the readers that he has not least interest rather the public good of his country. As he says:

"I have no Children, by which I can propose to get a single penny; the youngest being nine Years old, and my Wife past Child-bearing."

Swifts, by this easy, very successfully draws the attention of the authority as well as the readers. Robert Phiddian has written an essay entitled "Have You Eaten Yet" after reading this essay.

Some scholar argues that, "A Modest Proposal" is largely influenced by Tertullian's "Apology". James William Johnson points out the same central theme in both of the essay. Both of the essays are similar in their tone and the use of irony.

Last of all, it can be said that Jonathan Swift very successfully uses his mighty pen against the English oppressors by ridiculing their so called vanity as the writer knows that, the devil is brave in the face of threat, strong hearted before the tears and vulnerable only in the Achilles' heel of his vanity.

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Source by Talim Enam

Why an Educated, Professional Iranian-American Woman Supports Donald Trump

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Born in Tehran, I'm happy to be legally in the United States. As a European college educated female professional, I'd gladly support Donald Trump in the general election this fall. This is a good nation, and the clear-yet-ironic signal that it could be even better under Trump's unorthodox leadership is the amazing breadth of opposition to the Republican Party's front runner.

It's obvious why Democrats oppose Mr. Trump, but ponder these questions. Why would insider Republicans spend millions to derail their own party's front runner? Why stop someone bringing millions of new voters, lining up in record numbers at primary polling precincts? Answer – because political insider's pet special interests are threatened, period. Everything else is arguably a deliberate dodge, detraction or distraction.

Mr. Trump is obviously no politician. That's part of his entertaining, un-PC appeal. At the 40,000 foot level, Mr. Trump's foreign and domestic policies make good, common sense.

Example, why would the US accept:

– A half-trillion dollar annual trade imbalance with China,
– Allow millions of American jobs to go to China,
– Spend hundreds of millions in defense against China and others,
– And then borrow the money from China to pay federal deficits? Hello?

Is not that unimaginably ignorant? Yet the two major party's brain trusts have their fingerprints all over those policies.

It's Donald Trump who pounds away on:

– Trade – China, Mexico, Middle East oil, etc.,
– The tragedy of vets poorly treated by VA hospitals,
– Backing the men and women in blue,
– The outrage of not enforcing US immigration laws,
– Banning unvetted Muslims coming to America, after jihadi terrorists slipped into Europe and the US as "refugees,"
– Who else claims a plan and asserts the need to pay off the staggering federal debt,
– Repatriating trillions of dollars off-shored by high taxes and job-killing regulations,
– On becoming the job-creating president,
– Among other issues resonating with millions across the political, economic and educational spectrum.

Proof he can be "presidential" was given during his address to AIPAC.

Having listened to former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Senator Bernie Sanders debate, they may be more polite than their GOP rivals, but it's obvious each has huge policy problems.

Examples. As sincerely passionate as Senator Sanders seems, how can he imagine universal federal medical care working for over 330 million, when government can not properly run healthcare for several million veterans?

Or with President Barack Hussein Obama admitting to Chris Wallace on a Sunday morning show that the biggest mistake of his administration was 'having no day after plan' for Libya-post the US intervention; that points directly to then-Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. Clinton bragged about her influence in toppling Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddaf. What most Americans call ISIS or ISIL, in the Middle East is known as "Daesh" (or Da'ish). Whatever you call them, they now control large parts of Libya. That failed policy was created by the POTUS Obama / Hillary Clinton team. Thanks, Madam Secretary …

ICYMI, as an Iranian-born professional woman, I agree with Mr. Trump that the deal giving Iran $ 150 billion was incredibly flawed.

Democrats have lurched far left. Communist and socialist systems are a proven failure. Just look at Korea to see the superiority of free markets vs. state socialism. North Korea is an economic basket case, while the South is vibrant. The more America moves towards socialism, is it any wonder our economy and people suffer?

Crony capitalism controls DC. "The System's" profiteers are trying desperately to stop Donald Trump's self-funded campaign.

Professionally, we manage the manufactured home (MH) industry's two largest trade media sites. Working with MH firms of all sizes, we know the following first-hand. Though the MH Industry is over 6 years into its recovery, poor public policies throttle faster growth. Growth yields tens of thousands of good, new jobs annually. Multiply that across scores of US industries …

There is plenty of blame to go around. Forget the blame-game! A leader is needed to refocus on restoring America's political and economic system. Let's revitalize growth, security and upward mobility.

You do not build a multi-billion-dollar empire unless you know how to manage situations and people. An objective review underscores Mr. Trump has intelligent America First principles that will make this land greater and safer again.

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Source by Soheyla Kovach

Impact of Baby Boomers on American Society

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Demographers' defined the baby boom as a birth surge started in 1946, after the World War II and reached its peak in 1957 and continued until 1964 because of the postwar prosperity. Most people uses "generation" as their term but demographers precisely referred it as "cohort" (group of individuals experiencing a certain event within a specified time). This reveals that social changes interconnect with the life of every baby boomer.

There two groups of baby boomers. The babies born from 1946 to 1955 were called early boomers. Those who were born from 1956 to 1964 were called as late boomers. The last set were born during the first tour of Beatles in America and the first early ones was approximately 18 years that time. They are were noticeable because of their big populations. They crowded junior high, elementary schools, high schools, labor market, and colleges.

Studies show that the impacts brought about by the society where baby boomers grew up contributes a lot in reshaping the society. They never think like their parents. Because the population of these cohorts is unprecedented during the 20th century, their beliefs and behaviors are then predicted to dominate things.

But there is also a great discrepancy in terms of economic status between early and late boomers. Compared to the energetic job market and emerging economy laid beneath the feet of early ones, late boomers needs adjustment on economic shifts. It is due to the rapid growth of service sectors, jobs for middle class became less stable, changing locations of workers, and career market adjustments.

Most are considered economic security as an elusive thing. They are the people who were born after the era of civil rights. Conducted studies even reveals income differences according to ethnicity, race, and birthplace creating ethnic classes. It was because one third of the population are Hispanic, African-American, or Asian besides the black and white Americans. Take for instance, the black boomer's generation are considered inferior than whites, although the generation were rated the best in terms of education.

It is a fact that the life was accompanied by postwar transformations changing the American society. The ideas about sexuality, gender, and family were altered profoundly. Likewise, parenthood changed, old age and retirement was redefined, and labor forces were transformed. Even in their old age, they seize opportunity to stay involved and active like staying in their work force to meet the responsibilities of supporting their children.

The changes in the society were never brought solely by the stereotype but also the conservative types like Seth Grossman. They expressed themselves through street protests while the conservative use other forms such as leaflets, student newspapers, and forums. Although their actions did not attract the attention of media but they achieved their success when they forced a referendum which resulted in the withdrawal of Duke students from the National Student Association.

Conservative may not be a part of the projected boomer's image but they became a strong force in making their way silently. They are not even in the front page of the newspapers because they still attend their class while others were boycotting. Nevertheless, they have supported conservative politicians like George Wallace in 1968.

One third of the populations of early boomers served during the Vietnam War. Other made a name in different fields throughout history. Joyce Johnson was an African-American who belongs to the stereotype her activist work in her graduate school. When she entered Duke School, she sought for advancement not only for herself but her entire race. She belongs in the Afro-American Society involved in the iconic events in the Duke campus during the 60s. Grossman and Johnson are baby boomers who contributed great change in their society.

Deep understanding about the baby boom generation is very important as they advanced on to their old age. It should be more of demographic curiosities because if demographic bulge move continuously on the system, then economic differences also persists. They once do their best in shaping the society providing significant impacts on the lives of many people besides themselves.

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Source by Roger Mitchell

Antony and Cleopatra As a Love Tragedy

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Love as an emotion is dealt with great precision and maturity against the backdrop of war and that essentially constitutes the groundwork of Shakespeare's most enigmatic drama: Antony and Cleopatra. Written approximately around 1606-07, this play combines chemically the nuances of love, politics and the history of the Roman Empire in its concoction.

Love has a slightly different connotation for Shakespeare's protagonists; it does not point towards a mild affection that conjoins two hearts but a destructive power that storms away a person's rationale and sends him to his doom. This adulterous love engorged with voluptuous desires and sensual pleasures could be considered immoral by Elizabethan or Christian standards. It stands in stark opposition to the love of Romeo and Juliet also constructed by Shakespeare which stood by intense emotion and weighty melodrama. The love in Antony and Cleopatra clearly envisages the fact that both lovers have a rich previous personal history however it seems to transcend these perspectives and emerges as a somber nevertheless true love. Antony phrases it beautifully by stating that "there's beggary in the love that can be reckoned" he posits that love is an immeasurable quantity that resonates with grandeur especially in this case. The hero, mark Antony is portrayed as a man of brilliant valiance and exceptional martial prowess. When in a dilemma between stately duties and sexual gratification chooses the latter as pointed out by Philo in the very first dialogue of the play. He stands unflinching by his supreme love, flickering in his decision. His position is validated by the fact that even his enemies speak high of him.

Octavious Caesar articulates his achievements on the battlefield and says that "… in the name lay a moiety of the world". He can be contrasted with Horatio from Shakespeare's hamlet whose "blood and judgment were well co-mingled. Although it has been suggested that his sentiments are base and it has been termed as an obsession, dotage and silliness, he still functions in consonance with it lest with its glimpses of ambivalence. The heroine or the Egyptian queen, Cleopatra comes across as a highly attractive, awe-inspiring enchantress with fathomless coquetry. her wit, dialogues and her poise all have a theatrical edge to it. Enobarbus describes her demeanor appropriately when she and Antony met for the first time. she often behaves with relentless self-absorption. she favors high drama and displays a spectacle of emotions, indulges in play acting revealed consistently through her praxis as well as her ideology of life. Reflected through the scene where she deals in Proculeius' proposal or even her love prattle in act 1 where she states "if it be love indeed tell me how much." However she is also a woman of substance and has an active hand in the implementation of policies and the assertion of important decisions. Also she is a quintessential woman; she consolidates her authority over her lover, throws tantrums perpetually and rebukes him when she is angry. William Hazlitt regards her as the masterpiece among all the female characters, her "whole character" is the triumph over the voluptuous, of the love of pleasure and the power of giving it over every other consideration. The fact remains that both lovers are past their prime into love- that is a malady without cure. Their love stands as an inquisition within themselves and it is a daily war that they wage against each other. Like Cleopatra's fascination of Antony, Antony's greatness is also one of the two absolutes in the play. It defies any compartmentalization in the context of diplomacy, war, calculation, magnanimity, sensuality or heroism. Love as a word encompasses a multitude of emotions ranging from the purely spiritual to the basest perversions and the theme of the play is to amplify or conform to them. Quill and Couch avers that "the theme is of love: not the pretty amorous ritual played on a time by the troubadours and courtiers … Not as a business understood by eighteenth century sentimentalists, but love the invincible destroyer. Love: voluptuous, savage , perfidious, true to itself though rooted in dishonor … "A tragedy might be as episodic as history or as complicated as a comedy. Shakespeare creatively crafts Antony and Cleopatra against the backdrop of the Parthian war defining all characters in that context. It is known for its subject matter not for its structure. This play however does not cater to all features of an ideal tragedy; for instance it is not marked by a suffering leading to a downfall, the element of chance is very subtly enforced by the soothsayer. However it does not procure within its spectrum the pangs of despised love, the anguish of remorse, powerlessness and pity. The hamartia of the protagonist, Antony can be stated as the 'blind judgment' of the situation at hand. According to Aristotle, '' a tragedy is an imitation of action that is serious and complete in itself "in this regard even his Troilus and Cressida is also not a conventional tragedy as it lurches between bawdy comedy and tragic gloom.

The world of the play absorbs political contingencies, love affairs, and solemn deaths. Tragedy is nourished by the social context in which the individual is placed textually. Shakespeare does not seem to use his faculty of poetic justice as in the final conflagration both evil and good are destroyed alike. His vivid interest in roman histories can also be witnessed in his Coriolanus and Julius Caesar. Personal desires of Antony and Cleopatra are bracketed by the political vicissitudes and public catastrophes. The dichotomy between the geographical locales of Rome and Egypt is the pivotal framework of the play. The east stands for sensuousness, luxury and extravagance whereas the west symbolizes cold calculation, decadent heroism, and duty and soldiers hip. This binary permeates into the intimate relationships and subverts the very basis of it. People regard Antony as the '' strumpet's fool '' and Cleopatra as the '' Egyptian dish ''.

Shakespeare using Romanesque rhetoric analyses the manipulative nature of tragedy crystallized in the death of the lovers thus immortalizing their names. Although their love is not composed of private intimacies they both desire an escape route to the world of their own wherein their interests are harmonized and bodies merged forming a solid compound. The love actually belongs to the public arena wherein displays of affection are understood to be expressions of political power and allegiance. It also has to bear the weight of personal failure and defeat of the state notwithstanding astute criticism of their co-inhabitants in a ceremonious manner. It grapples with the self-consuming rage of its tragic figures and the constant refinement of brute actuality with lyrical illusion. What comprises the frustration of the dramatist is the difference in the perceptions of its hero and heroine. Tragic dimension is attained by an excess and concentration of emotions, the profundity of the issue lies in the tragic potential of love because it can not grant happiness to its pursuers. In death the lovers are not divided and become examples of legendary love. However it also serves as an apotheosis to love because it is a means to form a union beyond the realm of jealousy, uncertainty and regret. DA Traversi argues "… a tragedy of lyrical inspiration justifying love by presenting it as triumphant over death … a presentation of spiritual possibilities dissipated through a senseless surrender to passion".

The outward struggle is of highest importance in a tragedy for its total effect. From the moment, Antony sets his eyes on Cleopatra in Cydnus. "… And for his ordinary pays in his heart / for what his eyes eat only", it was instantaneous love, a tempestuous passion that both united and kept asunder both Antony and Cleopatra. Shakespeare uses poetry of the highest order to accumulate variety in scene and distinction in character. Compared to Richard II where he intimated the love was the natural choice for all mankind. He seems in Antony and Cleopatra less interested in the battle of Actium than in the nature of that forces that utterly obliterates the individual mindset. To deepen the content he shows that it is precisely out of dishonor and defeat that spiritual triumph emerges, which is always found at the heart of any tragedy. As it nears its end, it seems to recede from history and myth and leaps forward to a colossal degree of imagination.

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Source by Sanjhee Gianchandani

How to Layout an Effective Palm Card Design For Your Political Campaign

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The ultimate goal of your palm card layout and design is to deliver a candidate image and message that is clear and consistent to voters. Also called push cards, palm cards are an effective form of campaign advertisement. You should communicate your main talking points as well as background, education and such other relevant information all while being visually appealing to your desired demographic.

Designing a campaign palm card consists of several facets. First is the use of color. When ordering your push cards, remember to use the colors that are specific to your campaign. Red, white and blue are traditionally the most popular colors among political hopefuls, but if you have a pre-existing color scheme use those colors.

This leads us into our second design point; be consistent. Do not change your color scheme or election slogan halfway through the campaign. It is important to be consistent with all of your campaign materials in regards to color, font and style of design. When building a campaign image, or brand if you will, uniformity is key to accomplishing this successfully.

Third, choose palettes of colors that are complementary to each other. In the age of digital printing, voters expect to see full color printing, and an appealing palm card. Be creative with your color choices. Also make the text, especially your name, easy to read. Your name should be the first thing that the voter sees in respect to your push card. The font you select should be clear and large. Gothic and fancy script-type fonts should be avoided due to their lack of clarity.

The fourth facet of designing your campaign palm card is presenting your message. Make sure your message is clear and simple. Do not confuse your voters by throwing legal jargon or complex phrases at them. Use simple words and concise sentences to get your point across. There should be a natural flow of information that is easy to follow. Remember, if the voter does not read your message, you have wasted your time and money.

Pictures are an essential staple to have on your palm card. It is important to have a headshot of the front on your palm card so your voter can put a face with a name. For local offices, this may be the only time the voter sees you. You might also include a nice family photo on your palm card under the family section. If available, include some action shots of the candidate in the community. Choose the best quality pictures available. Most printers will not accept anything less than 300 dpi at print size (4 "x 6"). If you are unsure about the terminology used here, your photographer or printer should be able to help you. Remember, a picture is worth 1000 words!

There are many layout and design options available when designing your push card, but you must take your quantity of information into account when deciding which layout works best for you.

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Source by Meesseman missy

Growth Of Communalism In India

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Communalism is a modern phenomenon. It had its roots in the modern colonial socio-economic political structure. Communalism emerged as a result of the emergence of new, modern politics based on the people and on popular participation and mobilisation. It made it necessary to have wider links and loyalties among the people and to form new identities. This process was bound to be difficult, gradual and complex.

This process required the birth and spread of modern ideas of nation, class and cultural-linguistic identity. These identities, being new and unfamiliar, arose and grew slowly and in a zig-zag fashion. Quite often people used the old, familiar pre-modern identity of caste, locality, sect and religion to grasp the new reality, to make wider connections and to evolve new entities. This has happened all over the world. But gradually the modern and historically-necessary identities of nation, nationality and class have prevailed.

Unfortunately, in India this process has remained incomplete for decades. In particular, religious consciousness was transformed into communal consciousness in some parts of the country and among some sections of the people. In particular, modern political consciousness was late in developing among the Muslims. As nationalism spread among the Hindus and Parsis of the lower-middle class, it failed to grow equally rapidly among the Muslims of the same class.

Hindus and Muslims had fought shoulder to shoulder during the Revolt of 1857. In fact, after the suppression of the Revolt, British officials had taken a particularly vindictive attitude towards the Muslims.With the rise of the nationalist movement the British statesmen grew apprehensive about the safety and stability of their empire in India. To check the growth of a united national feeling in the country, they decided to follow more actively the policy of 'divide and rule' and to divide the people along religious lines, in other words, to encourage communal and separatist tendencies in Indian politics.

For this purpose they decided to come out as 'champions' of the Muslims and to win over to their side Muslim zamindars, landlords and the newly educated. They also fostered other divisions in Indian society. They promoted provincialism by talking of Bengali domination. They tried to utilize the caste structure to turn non-Brahmins against Brahmins and the lower castes against the higher castes. In Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, where Hindus and Muslims had always lived in peace, they actively encouraged the movement to replace Urdu as the court language by Hindi.

In other words, they tried to use even the legitimate demands of different sections of Indian society to create divisions among the Indian people. The colonial government treated Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs as separate communities. It readily accepted communal leaders as authentic representatives of all their co-religionists. It permitted the propagation of virulent communal ideas and communal hatred through the press, pamphlets, posters, literature and other public platforms.

This is a very vast issue. We should think about it deeply and use our own mind to come to any decision.

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Source by Md Riaz

What Are the Attributes of a Great President?

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A President is the head of the Country and represents not only his party but also the people of his country. Their hopes and aspirations for themselves as well as their country's role in the world are a reflection of the President's performance. A great President is someone who can give a fillip to domestic balanced growth as well as play a key role in guiding international politics. What are the attributes of a great President – does he go strictly by the constitutional written word or does he give his own interpretations more importance, should he risk being unpopular by taking the correct but difficult decision or should he play to the gallery and leave his successor to sort out the mess. Read on to find out qualities that make a great President.

Clear Vision and Direction: To lead a country and its people, a President needs to have a strategic vision and direction. He should be clear what his goals are, how he can accomplish them. He has to concentrate on big issues and challenges and have a macro view of economic, social and political realities.

For instance, Roosevelt's fireside chats (thirty evening radio speeches) during the 'Great Depression' gave people hope and inspired them to take advantage of the various measures being introduced to tackle unemployment and encourage entrepreneurship. The same quality was exhibited by Abraham Lincoln during his "House Divided" speech emphasizing his goal of preserving the Union while limiting slavery.

Consistency of Purpose: It takes courage to stick to your chosen course of action to achieve your stated end goal. Lincoln was firm in tackling the Civil War but he was flexible enough to take the changing ground realities into consideration and modified strategies to achieve his goal.

Inherited Legacy: This is something all Presidents have to live with – the inherited legacy of the previous President. For instance, Lincoln inherited a tough legacy filled with officials who sympathized with the Southern States. His task of preserving the Union became enormously difficult as it was being sabotaged from within.

Emotional Maturity: Emotional maturity, popularly referred to as' Emotional Intelligence "or" Emotional Quotient "refers to the ability to think rationally distancing oneself from personal prejudices and looking at the big picture. A great President must have self confidence and must not be frozen by doubt and indecision.

Respect for Public Opinion: A successful President must have a healthy respect for public opinions as expressed in the form of surveys, polls and media interviews but should not be swayed by them. In fact, he should learn from it and engage in educating the citizens about the actual short-, mid- and long-term effects of his policies.

Negotiation and Collaboration: No President can function in isolation only on the strength of his cabinet and party. A great and successful President is one who engages in negotiation and collaboration with the opposing parties to successfully pass and implement acts and ordinances. In the American context, it can happen that the President belongs to one part while the House and Senate is controlled by the other party. Only negotiations and collaborations can help is such situations.

Quick Action: This is the hall mark of a great President – taking quick decisions and implementing them immediately. In other words, readiness to act and comfort in deciding are important.

Of course along with the above qualities alone will not make for a great President. How he applies these qualities in the discharge of his duties will ultimately determine how history will judge him.

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Source by Eric Schultz

Influencing People At Work: Black Art Or Fine Art

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As an executive coach, clients often ask me how they can influence organizational decision-making more effectively without becoming a 'back-stabber' or an 'ass-kisser'. There is a fine line between demonstrating organizational savvy and playing the 'dirty game' of office politics. The key difference lies in two words: motive, and method. This article gives you nine strategies to help you become more of an expert in the fine art of influence, while staying true to the highest standards of professional ethics and values.

First, the Black Art

We have all seen the Black Art of Influence in action: bosses who suck up and kick down; take credit for the work of others; or leave a wake of burned out staff behind them in their rise to the top. We know colleagues who always seem to have the ear of the boss and create confusion by sowing doubts about others. Or we have experienced subordinates who regularly go over our head because of their 'specialized knowledge'.

In virtually every case, the motive is self-serving and the method is underhand. Influencing others becomes a Black Art when your objective is to turn everything to your advantage, to make yourself look good at other people's expense.

Sometimes people can convince themselves they need to use devious tactics because the cause is just. Methods can include providing misleading or inadequate information, taking advantage of absences to limit opposition, outright lying, withholding approval or obstructing progress. And the list goes on. People can fool themselves into believing that this behaviour is right, especially if they get away with it. But most know the end does not justify the means.

Now the Fine Art

The Center for Creative Leadership describes two key skills that are critical to the success of leaders: organizational agility and political savvy. In their book, FYI: A Guide for Development and Coaching, Michael W. Lombardo and Robert F. Eichinger describe organizational agility as:

"Knowledge about how organizations work; knowing how to get things done through formal channels and the informal network; understanding the origin and reasoning behind key policies, practices and procedures; and understanding the cultures of organizations" (p.235).

They describe political savvy as:

"[One who] can manoeuvre through political situations effectively and quietly; is sensitive to how people and organizations function; anticipates where the landmines are and plans … accordingly; views corporate politics as a necessary part of organizational life …; is a maze-bright person "(p.291).

Organizational agility and politically savvy are key traits to being effective in your job no matter what your level, but are especially critical the further you advance. You need to gain support for your ideas not just from those above you, but also from those below. You need support from your peers across the organization and even from those who are outside your organization.

Adding further complexity, most large organizations have both political and bureaucratic levels of decision-making. In government, the political level comprises elected officials and their political staff; the bureaucratic level is the civil service. In industry, the political level comprises Boards of Directors and major shareholders; the bureaucratic level is the CEO and employees. It is important to recognize this distinction because each level has different perspectives and preoccupations. If you want to get your ideas accepted, you need to consider both.

9 Steps to Increase Your Ability to Influence People

1. Identify key players and their roles.

Study the organization chart and outside stakeholders. Find out who the decision-makers and influencers are for your program or service and whom they rely on for advice. Look for people at your level who can help you understand the players and roles.

2. Learn to read the political landscape.

Organizations may appear simple on the surface, but it is important not to underestimate their complexity because the people involved have different personalities and agendas. Find out who is known for getting things done, who are the gatekeepers, who controls the flow of information and resources, who are the resisters and stoppers. Whose support do you need?

3. Read between the organizational lines.

You need to understand the context in which the organization operates. You may not be able to gain support for your idea, not because it is not good, but because budget restraint or other priorities are more important, especially at the political level. Find ways to link your program to these priorities.

4. Build relationships at all levels.

Cooperate and help others as often as you can, no matter their level in the organization. You never know when you will need someone to speak well of you or smooth the way. Do not hold grudges. They can limit you later.

5. Consult people, test ideas and build support before presenting.

Go to your toughest critics and get their views. Consult behind the scenes to resolve concerns and obtain support. If you encounter roadblocks, look for ways to address them. This way you can avoid vocal and powerful opposition which can put your project at risk. And be careful about false consultation. If people give their views, incorporate them as best you can. If you can not, explain why. No one likes to be ignored.

6. Brush up on your communication skills.

Pay attention to people's non-verbal signals, especially in meetings. Learn to observe other people's agendas and to listen for what is not being said. Watch your language and vary your approach depending on your audience. The more senior the audience, the more focused and concise you need to be.

7. Be generous with your peers.

Everyone competes for the boss's favour. They will see a victory for you as a loss for them. It is always wise not to exacerbate this normal competitiveness. Be open, share information, give credit, never blindside them in meetings, and keep your ego and self-promotion in check.

8. Always engage your boss.

Your boss is your greatest asset and ally. It does not matter if you like your boss or not. Understand the role your boss plays in the organization and help him or her achieve their work objectives. The boss will then be more inclined to support your ideas.

9. Stay patient and flexible.

It can take time to develop a quality proposal, follow the process and obtain support. You will need to be flexible. Your proposal may go through many versions to address everyone's issues. Timing can also be a critical factor. A good idea presented at the wrong time will not get the attention it deserves. You may need to stop once in a while to assess the landscape. Persistence is good. Being a bulldozer or a mosquito is not.

Every organization is different. Understanding its culture and how it operates can help you successfully navigate through normal resistance to gain support for your ideas and even improve on them. This, combined with an open, honest and well-considered approach, will soon enable you to master the fine art of influence.

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Source by Jane Hardy

A Review of Foreign Affairs (A Political Magazine)

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In this article I will review, yet again, another political magazine. I will also give some brief background information and why I like this one as well as the prior reviewed political magazine. Probably by now you have guessed that I read a lot of these types of magazines and enjoy them immensely.

Shall we get to the background information. Foreign Affairs is an old publication that dates back to 1922 when it was founded. This magazine focuses on international relations and united States foreign policy. It is similar to Current History but different as well. Foreign Affairs is published by the Council on Foreign Relations and publishes bi-monthly. The Council of Foreign Affairs was founded in 1921 and is located in New York City. The Council on Foreign Affairs is a think tank that focuses on international relations. This publication is more academically oriented, similar to Current History, with many contributors that are professors.

It is now time to talk about why I deem this publication to be a favorite of mine. I like to read and learn about international relations and the role the United States plays. I think it is important to be aware of various institutions that the United States finds itself involved in. Especially in the twenty-first century, geopolitical issues are very complex and there are many different actors that play various roles. For instance, today the United States is involved in Afghanistan and just finished combat operation in Iraq. These examples are common knowledge because they are discussed on the nightly news or in the newspaper. But I like to learn an issue in depth and go beyond the soundbites heard on television or cursory coverage found in my local newspaper. I want to understand the political history of a country like Iraq or what will happen now that the United States has ended combat operation there and pulled out our troops. I want to know more about the fight against terrorism, that goes beyond what the politicians tell us.

I want to learn how China is becoming an economic powerhouse and about other emerging markets. I enjoy reading this type of magazine but I use it to inform myself of issues that help me make sound decisions when I vote. I think that for the United States to be a good democratic society and have constructive dialogue about various geopolitical issues people need to be informed about. By reading this magazine and others like it, this can be a small contribution to society. This can be a small step to contributing to our democratic ideals by being well informed and have a solid understanding of geopolitical issues and being able to engage in thoughtful dialogue and be able to put forth different ideas. This knowledge also helps me make wise decisions at the ballot box by thinking globally and not just nationally or locally. If you want to be more informed you should consider purchasing an issue at your local bookstore. And for the Internet Age, Foreign Affairs also a has website that you can check out. Foreign Affairs would also make a good gift for someone that is interested in foreign relations.

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Source by Suzy Bledsoe